In downtown Austin, Texas near Congress Avenue and Sixth Street, stands a bronze statue of Angelina Eberly holding a torch, igniting a canon. From where the monument stands, the Tennessee native fired the opening shot in the short-lived “Archives War” and earned the innkeeper the title of “Savior of Austin.”
Sam Houston ordered the Capitol of the Republic of Texas moved to Houston on March 10, 1842. The estimated two hundred remaining residents of Austin knew if the national archives were removed, Austin would never again be the Capitol. They formed a vigilance committee and loaded the cannon with grape shot in anticipation of a raid of the national records.
On the morning of December 30, 1842, twenty-six men in three wagons, on orders of President Sam Houston, arrived to take the national archives. Land Commissioner, Thomas William Ward or “Peg Leg” as the locals called him, directed the loading of eleven boxes. By noon the wagons were ready to roll, angry vigilantes’ shook their fists at Ward and the soldiers, as Angelina fired her famous shot. Shrapnel hit the Land Office, but no one was injured. The wagons took off north toward Kenny Fort on Brushy Creek. The vigilantes caught up with them, a short gun battle ensued. Houston’s men surrendered and the records were returned to Austin.
France was the first government to formally recognize the Republic of Texas after declaring its independence from Mexico. King Louis Philippe sent a French Ambassador named Alphonse Dubois de Saligny to Austin in 1840. The French Legation, built in 1841, still stands in its original location at 802 San Marcos St., just east of Memorial Stadium. The museum is open to the public and operated by the Daughters of the Republic of Texas. Viva la France and long live Texas!
On March 10, 1842, President Sam Houston again attempted to drive the stake of death into the heart of Austin. This was not Houston’s first attempt to do so; not wanting the Capitol of the Republic of Texas moved from Houston in the first place. Houston ordered Secretary of War, George Washington Hockley, to move the Archives stored at the General Land Office, to the city that bore his name. The Archives War was on between the citizens of Austin and Sam Houston’s Administration.
Austin’s population dwindled from 859 in 1840 to less than 150 in 1842. Of the original 75 families that settled the Capitol City, only 12 remained. Many died from Indian raids; 13 in one raid. Others went into the woods to hunt or fetch wood and never came back. Travis County Judge, James W. Smith, was mortally wounded and scalped by Comanche Indians near Shoal Creek; his 9 year old son taken captive January 21, 1841. The following August, Judge Smith’s father, Travis County Treasurer, Thomas W. Smith, was found scalped just outside of Austin.
Sam Houston used these Indian depravations and threat of another invasion from Mexico to declare a state of emergency. His alarm set off Texas’ Second Runaway Scrape. The brave souls that remained in Austin would protect the archives, ensuring Austin would remain the Capitol City of the Republic of Texas. This and other stories of Austin’s earliest days will be told in Book 4 of the Westward Sagas.
February 26, 1836, two hundred Alamo defenders shivered behind the walls of the compound as the morning wind howled across the San Antonio River. Firewood and water supplies were in short supply on this third day of the siege. The water well inside the old mission was not sufficient for the sudden needs of the Texas Army and their horses. A small party of men ventured out to gather firewood and bring water from a nearby acequia.
Santa Anna’s troops fired on the Alamo defenders as they scurried about grabbing dead mesquite wood on the ground, others carrying wooden buckets of water. Cannon fire diverted the Mexican marksmen’s attention, but future such excursions outside the walls would be made under the cover of darkness.
Note to today’s reader: At the siege of Mission San Antonio de Valero, the Alamo looked much different than today; as only the chapel and the long barracks still exist. To appreciate the size of this complex which was large enough to have livestock, horses and grow winter vegetables. The picture above depicts what the 1836 Alamo looked like.
February 23, 1836, large numbers of Mexican troops were seen from the Bell Tower of San Fernando Cathedral, 1.5 miles southwest of town. Many local families evacuated San Antonio headed east. More would follow before the sun set. Scouts estimated Santa Anna would not arrive until mid-March. William Barrett Travis shook his head, “They must have marched day and night to get here.”
The Texas volunteers began to prepare an old abandoned mission, storing provisions within the walls of the compound. The Mexican Army continued to grow; scouts reported to Travis the enemy now numbered over a thousand. Riders were sent to Gonzales and Goliad for reinforcements. Non-combatants were sequestered in the Alamo Chapel for safety.
At 2:30 p.m., a blood red flag was sent up by the Mexican’s signaling no quarter would be given. Travis answered with a cannon ball. The die was set; there would be no surrender by the Alamo Defenders.